Immunology Lecture 2-5 (2024)

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Immunology Lecture 2-5 (2)

Immunology Lecture 2-5 (3)

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18 Questions

Which of the following cytokines is NOT involved in the differentiation of Th17 cells?


What is the primary function of Th2 cells?

Providing help for B cells

Which type of T cell is involved in suppressing stimulatory activity of APCs?


What is the primary function of CD8+ T cells?

Killing target cells

Which cytokine is involved in the differentiation of Th1 cells?


What is the role of TGF-β in the differentiation of Treg cells?

Inducing the differentiation of Treg cells

Which cells display peptides in the context of highly polymorphic MHC molecules?


What is required for the activation of T cells?

Two signals

What is the primary function of CD8 T cells?

To recognise and kill virus-infected or cancerous cells

What is required for the activation of CD4 T cells?

Two signals, one from the T cell receptor and one from a co-stimulatory molecule

What is the function of MHC class I molecules?

To present antigens to CD8 T cells

What is the result of T cell receptor genes undergoing rearrangements?

The creation of a highly diverse repertoire of T cell receptors

What is the function of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD28 and CD86?

To provide the second signal for T cell activation

What is the difference between MHC class I and II molecules?

MHC class I molecules present antigens to CD8 T cells, while MHC class II molecules present antigens to CD4 T cells

What is the result of the interaction between the T cell receptor and MHC molecules?

The recognition of peptides by T cells

What is the characteristic of T cell receptors?

They are composed of two chains joined by disulphide bonds

What is the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells?

To present antigens to T cells

What is the result of the activation of CD4 T cells?

The activation of macrophages and the production of cytokines

Study Notes

T Cell Antigen Recognition

  • Peptides are displayed by cells in the context of highly polymorphic MHC molecules.
  • MHC molecules are highly polymorphic, with MHC I and II having different structures and functions.
  • MHC I is expressed on all nucleated cells, associates with β2 microglobulin, and is endogenously expressed.
  • MHC II is expressed on specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes.

Sources of Peptides Loaded into MHC Class I and II

  • MHC class I is loaded with peptides from viral proteins and endogenous proteins.
  • MHC class II is loaded with peptides from exogenous antigens.

T Cells Recognise Peptides with Their T Cell Receptors

  • T cells are defined by expression of the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a membrane-bound heterodimer.
  • TCR consists of two chains (α and β) joined by disulfide bonds, with variable and constant domains.
  • TCR genes undergo rearrangements from germline before translation.

Two Main Classes of ab T Cell

  • CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic T cells) recognise peptides presented by MHC I.
  • CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) recognise peptides presented by MHC II.

Activation of T Cells Requires Two Signals

  • Signal 1: TCR recognises peptide-MHC complex.
  • Signal 2: Co-stimulation by CD28 and CD86, which is upregulated on APCs by danger signals (infection, inflammation).

CD8 T Cells: Cytotoxic Lymphocytes (CTL)

  • CD8+ T cells are cytotoxic cells that can kill target cells, such as virus-infected cells or cancerous cells.

Activated CD4 Cells Can Differentiate into Different Kinds of Effector T Cells

  • CD4+ T cells can differentiate into different types of helper T cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells.
  • Each type of helper T cell has distinct functions, such as producing different cytokines and providing help to different cells.

CD4+ T Cell Subsets

  • Th1 cells: produce IFN-γ and IL-2, help activate CD8+ T cells and macrophages.
  • Th2 cells: produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, help activate B cells.
  • Th17 cells: produce IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22, help fight extracellular pathogens.
  • Treg cells: produce TGF-β and IL-10, suppress immune responses.

This quiz covers the topics of innate immune protection, antibody and lymphocyte diversity, T cells, MHC, tolerance, and T cell effector functions in immunology lectures 2-5.

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